# Aryabhata - Mathematician Biography,history, Facts and Pictures

Aryabhatta is the first of the great astronomers of the classical age of India. He was born in Kerala, South India in 476 AD but later lived in Kusumapura, which his commentator Bhaskara I (629 AD) identifies with pataliputra (modern Patna) in Bihar. His first name “Arya” is hardly a south Indian name while “Bhatt” (or Bhatta) is a typical north Indian name even found today specially among the trader community

Influence of Aryabhatta on science and mathematics

- Aryabhatta is considered to be one of the mathematicians who changed the course of mathematics and astronomy to a great extent. He is known to have considerable influence on Arabic science world too, where he is referred to as Arjehir. His notable contributions to the world of science and mathematics includes the theory that the earth rotates on its axis, explanations of the solar and lunar eclipses, solving of quadratic equations, place value system with zero, and approximation of pie (π).
- Aryabhatta exerted influence on the Indian astronomical tradition to such an extent that his presence was felt in neighboring countries and cultures also. There have been various translations of his work among which the Arabic translation during the 820CE is very significant.
- When mathematical students are confused with trigonometry even today, Aryabhatta had defined sine, cosine, versine and inverse sine back in his era, influencing the birth of trigonometry. The signs were originally known as jya, kojya, utkrama-jya and otkram jya. In Arabic they were translated as jiba and kojiba, which later when being translated into Latin was misunderstood to be ‘fold in a garment’ by Gerard of Cremona, who stated it as sinus, which meant fold in Latin. Aryabhatta was the first mathematician to detail both sine and versine (1 − cos x) tables, in 3.75° intervals from 0° to 90°, to 4 decimal places.
- Aryabhatta’s astronomical calculations influenced the Arabians, who used the trigonometric tables to compute many astronomical tables. His calendared calculation has been in continuous use in India, on which the present day Panchangam is based. His studies are also base for the national calendars of Iran and Afghanistan today.

Aryabhatiya

- It is known that Aryabhatta has authored at least three astronomical books, in addition he also wrote some free stanzas. Among them “Aryabhatiya” is the only text that has survived to this day, whereas unfortunately his other works have been extinct. It is a small treatise written is 118 verses, which summarizes the Hindu mathematics of that time. This great mathematical masterpiece of the past starts with 10 verse introduction, which is then followed by mathematical section which is written in 33 verses that gives out 66 mathematical rules, but there is no proof to go with it. The mathematical part of the Aryabhatiya is about algebra, arithmetic, plane trigonometry and spherical trigonometry in addition to advanced mathematics on continued fractions, quadratic equations, sums of power series and a table of sines.
- The next section consists of 25 verses which gives us glimpse into the planetary models. The final section of the book is dedicated to sphere and eclipses which runs into 50 verses. He states that the moon and planets shine by reflected sunlight. Instead of the prevailing cosmogony where eclipses were believed to be caused by pseudo-planetary nodes Rahu and Ketu, he explains eclipses in terms of shadows cast by earth or those shadows that fall on earth. It is amazing how Aryabhatta could explain both lunar and solar eclipse so accurately.
- There is some argument over the claim of Aryabhatta being the inventor of place value system that made use of zero. Georges Ifrah, in his work ‘Universal history of numbers: From prehistory to the invention of the computer (London, 1998)’ writes in work, “..it is extremely likely that Aryabhatta knew the sign for zero and the numerals of the place value system”. Georges Ifrah has studied the works of Aryabhatta and found that the counting and mathematical work carried out by him would have been not possible without zero or place value system.

Some of the works of Aryabhatta include

- Aryabhatta worked out the value of pi.
- He worked out the area of a triangle. His exact words were, “
*ribhujasya phalashariram samadalakoti bhujardhasamvargah*” which translates “for a triangle, the result of a perpendicular with the half side is the area”. - He discussed the idea of sin.
- He worked on the summation of series of squares and cubes (square-root and cube-root).
- He talks about the “rule of three” which is to find the value of x when three numbers a, b and c is given.
- Aryabhatta calculates the volume of a sphere.
- Aryabhatta described the model of the solar system, where the sun and moon are each carried by epicycles that in turn revolve around the Earth. He also talks about the number of rotations of the earth, describes that the earth rotating on its axis, the order of the planets in terms of distance from earth.
- Aryabhatta describes the solar and lunar eclipses scientifically.
- Aryabhatta describes that the moon and planets shine by light reflected from the sun.
- Aryabhatta calculated the sidereal rotation which is the rotation of the earth with respect to the stars as 23 hours, 56 minutes and 4.1 seconds.
- He calculated the length of the sidereal year as 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes and 30 seconds. The actual value shows that his calculations was an error of 3 minutes and 20 seconds over a year.

Aryabhata’s Legacy

Aryabhata was an immense influence to mathematics and astronomy. Many of his works inspired Arabs more particularly. His astronomical calculations helped form the ‘Jalali calendar’

The Indian ISRO (Indian Space Research Organization) named its first satellite after the genius mathematician and astronomer. A research establishment has been set up in Nainital, called the Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences (ARIOS) to honor his contribution to the field of science. There is also a lunar crater and a species of bacteria discovered by ISRO named after Aryabhatta.

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Aryabhata - Mathematician Biography,history, Facts and Pictures
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Tuesday, October 28, 2014
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